Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Question: What Is The Clinical Reasoning Is Stepwise Process? Answer: Introduction: Clinical reasoning is synonymous with the clinical judgment, problem solving, decision making and critical thinking in nursing practice. Clinical reasoning is stepwise process with incorporation of steps to collect cues and information, to process collected information, to understand problems, to identify patients correct complication, to plan and implement nursing interventions and to evaluate outcomes. Based on the condition of the patient, these steps should be modified. Outcome of the nursing intervention depends on the clinical reasoning. Clinical reasoning is the result oriented approach. Incorrect assessment and diagnosis of the patient can result in the administration of wrong treatment. For providing effective nursing intervention to Katie, clinical reasoning is implemented for her assessment and management. Nurse should follow all the steps like collection of information, understanding exact problem, planning and implementing nursing intervention (Cooper and Frain, 2016). A ll the steps required for clinical reasoning of Katie are discussed in this essay. Pharmacological, social and psychological aspects of Katie are discussed in this essay. Nurse should have strong knowledge and skills of these aspects to execute clinical reasoning in Katie. Discussion: Persons situation: Katie is admitted to hospital because she has sustained haematoma due to hit by slow moving car 18 hours ago. In her assessment, it was evident that she had traumatic brain injury. Patients with traumatic brain injury are associated with symptoms like intracranial hemorrhage and haematoma. Haematoma in patients with traumatic brain injury can be detected in first four hours and approximately 50 % with traumatic brain injury are susceptible to haematoma. It is less likely that persons of Katies age are less prone to brain injury in comparison with people with older age. In older people, brain injury can occur because of fall. Moreover, recovery from brain injury is faster in persons of Katies age in comparison to the older people. People of Katies age can recover from brain injury within 5 hours (Qureshi et al., 2015; Plata et al., 2008). Collect cues and information: Katies handover indicated that her vital signs were as follows : heart rate - 89 beats per minute, respiratory rate 13 breaths per minute and oxygen saturation (Sp02) - 96 %. All these values reflects normal pulse rate, breathing rate and oxygen saturation level in Katie. Her Glasgow Coma Score was recorded as 14. Her recorded blood pressure was abnormal with raised systolic blood pressure and reduced diastolic blood pressure. She also had complication of memory loss because she was not remembering current things and regaining memory with prompting. Brain injury can affect pupillary size and vision because brain injury can affect retina. In the provided handover information about the pupillary size and vision were missing. Patients with traumatic brain injury are prone to pyrexia and increase in the intracranial pressure. However, there was no mention of temperature and intracranial pressure in her handover. Due to injury, there may be possibility of blood loss, hence blood paramete rs like haematology full blood count and coagulation screening should have been carried put in her. However, these parameters were missing from her handover. There was no information about blood sugar level and urinary output by use of catheter. Information of the medicines administered to Katie is not available in her handover. This information about medicines would have been useful in planning further course of nursing action (Moppett, 2007). She was having long history of painful ankle, however she was keeping herself away from taking medicine for pain relief. Process information: From the provided information it can be interpreted that her heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were normal. Heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation should be in the range of 70- 100 beats per minute, 12 20 breaths per minute and above 94 % respectively in the Katies age person. Subdural haematoma patients are prone to develop hypertension and bradycardia. Katies heart rate was normal. From the provided data, it is evident that Katie also developed systolic hypertension. Katie developed mild coma because her Glasgow Coma score fall in the range of 13 14. This coma score reflected mild coma. Traumatic brain injury also affects respiratory system like hypoxia. Katies oxygen saturation level was normal (Adams, 2010). Identify problems/issues: It is evident that, Katie is not remembering recent things. Hence, she is having memory loss. Extent of memory loss can be obtained by performing computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Katie. Diagnosis of bleeding disorders should be performed in Katie by using thrombocytopenia test. If surgery needs to be performed in Katie, she should be administered with blood. For this, matching blood group should be identified for her. Artificial intubation should be used in Katie because traumatic brain injury can lead to hypoxia development. Central venous catheter should be used her to measure intracranial blood pressure because traumatic brain injury patients can develop raised intracranial blood pressure. (Blissitt, 2006). Katies age persons are not usually associated with hypertension, memory loss, hyperpyrexia, hypercarbia, renal complications, proprioceptive dysfunction, sensory sensing disorder, facial palsy and paralysis. However, Katie already developed hypertension and memory loss. Due to traumatic brain injury, she is prone developing hyperpyrexia, hypercarbia, renal complications, proprioceptive dysfunction, sensory sensing disorder, facial palsy and paralysis. There is no requirement of artificial intubation and blood loading in persons of Katies age. However, due to brain injury, Katie may need supplemental oxygen and blood transfusion (Moppett, 2007, Ponsford et al., 2008). Detail the assessment: Nurse should set achievable goals for Katie. Nurse should be aimed at maintaining normal blood pressure, oxygen saturation and respiratory rate in Katie. Nurse should assess Katie for physical and vital signs. Blood pressure and hypoxia condition should be assessed by using blood pressure apparatus and arterial blood gas (ABG) test respectively. If these tests indicate abnormal values, nurse should amend management plan accordingly. Nurse should assess blood pressure and hypoxia condition before and after administration of the medications and medical management like artificial intubation. Nurse should work in collaboration with psychologist to manage her speech problem and memory loss. Memory loss should be evaluated in Katie by giving different types of tasks to her. These tasks would be helpful in the assessment of extent and type of memory loss (Schultheis and Whipple, 2014). Paralysis should be evaluated in Katie by assessing reaction time to particular task. Nurse should evaluat e 24 hour urine output in her by using catheter because she developed cardiovascular complications due to brain injury. Intracranial pressure should be evaluated in her by using central venous catheter. Based on the results obtained for intracranial pressure, nurse should consult doctor for surgery Conclusion: Nurse should be well aware of the entire medical, clinical and nursing knowledge and skills for effective practice of clinical reasoning. In case of Katie, nurse collected all the information related to physical and vital signs assessment. Nurse analyzed data and interpreted it to know exact nursing problem of Katie. This identification of the exact problem, helped nurse to plan nursing care for Katie. From the collected data, nurse separated normal and abnormal condition in Katie. Normal conditions comprises of heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation level. Abnormal conditions comprises of memory loss and mild coma. Katies handover would have been made more informative by incorporating information about pupillary size, pyrexia, central venous pressure, blood count and coagulation. It has been suggested that assessment for pupillary size, pyrexia, central venous pressure, blood count and coagulation should have been performed in Katie. Effective implementation of the clini cal reasoning can be achieved by using this stepwise approach. Nurse should think in an analytical and logical way to provide nursing care to Katie. Nurse should not focus only on the provided information. Nurse should identify missing information which would be helpful in identification of the exact problem of Katie. This additional information can be useful in modifying nursing intervention to be provided to nurse. Thus lateral thinking would be helpful in implementing complete and holistic care to Katie. Success rate of collection of information from Katie can be increased by implementation of reflective communication with Katie and giving information to Katie about her diseased condition and possible outcomes. In summary, effective implementation of clinical reasoning can be helpful in identifying problems in Katie and providing targeted nursing intervention. References: Adams, J.P. (2010). Non-neurological complications of brain injury". In John P. Adams; Dominic Bell; Justin McKinlay. Neurocritical care : a guide to practical management. London: Springer. pp. 7788. Blissitt, P.A. (2006). Care of the critically ill patient with penetrating head injury. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America, 18(3), 32132. Carone, D., and Bush, S.S. (2012). Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Symptom Validity Assessment and Malingering. Springer Publishing Company. Cooper, N., and Frain, J. (2016). ABC of Clinical Reasoning. John Wiley Sons. Guy, R., Furmanov, A., Itshayek, E., Shoshan, Y., and Singh, V. (2014). Assessment of a noninvasive cerebral oxygenation monitor in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurosurgery, 120(4), 901907. Moppett, I.K. (2007). Traumatic brain injury: Assessment, resuscitation and early management. British Journal of Anaesthesiology, 99(1), 1831. Plata, C.M., Hart, T., Hammond, F.M., Frol, A., et al., (2008). Impact of Age on Long-term Recovery From Traumatic Brain Injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89(5), 896903. Ponsford, J., Draper, K., and Schonberger, M. (2008). Functional outcome 10 years after traumatic brain injury: its relationship with demographic, injury severity, and cognitive and emotional status. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14(2), 233242. Qureshi, A.I., Malik, A. A., Adil, M.M., Defillo, A., Sherr, G., and Suri, K. (2015). Hematoma Enlargement Among Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury: Analysis of a Prospective Multicenter Clinical Trial. Journal of vascular and interventional neurology, 8(3), 4249. Schultheis, M. T., and Whipple, E. (2014). Driving after traumatic brain injury: evaluation and rehabilitation interventions. Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports, 2(3), 176183.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Supernatural in Shakespeare's Plays In the time of William Shakespeare there was a strong belief in the existence of the supernatural. Thus, the supernatural is a recurring aspect in many of Mr. Shakespeare?s plays. In two such plays, Hamlet and Macbeth, the supernatural is an integral part of the structure of the plot. It provides a catalyst for action, an insight into character, and augments the impact of many key scenes. The supernatural appears to the audience in many varied forms. In Hamlet there appears perhaps the most notable of the supernatural forms, the ghost. However, in Macbeth, not only does a ghost appear but a floating dagger, witches, and prophetic apparitions make appearances. The role of the supernatural is very important in Hamlet and Macbeth. A ghost, appearing in the form of Hamlet?s father, makes several appearances in the play. It first appears to the watchmen, Marcellus and Bernardo, along with Horatio near the guardsmens' post. The ghost says nothing to them and is perceived with fear and apprehension, ?It harrows me with fear and wonder?. It is not until the appearance of Hamlet that the ghost speaks, and only then after Horatio has expressed his fears about Hamlet following it, ?What if it tempt you toward the flood, my lord, or to the dreadful summit of the cliff?. The conversation between the ghost and Hamlet serves as a catalyst for Hamlet?s later actions and provides insight into Hamlet?s character. The information the ghost reveals incites Hamlet into action against a situation he was already uncomfortable with, and now even more so. Hamlet is not quick to believe the ghost, ?The spirit that I have seen may be a devil... and perhaps out of my weakness and my melancholy..abuses me to damn me?, and thus an aspect of Hamlet?s character is revealed. Hamlet, having no suspicion of the ghost after the production by the players, encounters the ghost next in his mother?s room. In this scene the ghost makes an appearance to ?whet? Hamlet?s ?almost blunted purpose?. Hamlet is now convinced of the ghost and he no longer harbors any suspicion. He now listens to it, ?Speak to her, Hamlet?. In Hamlet, the supernatural is the guiding force behind Hamlet. The ghost ask Hamlet to seek revenge for the King?s death and Hamlet is thus propelled to set into action a series of events that ends in Hamlet?s death. The supernatural occurs four times during the course of Macbeth. It occurs in all the appearances of the witches, in the appearance of Banquo?s ghost, in the apparitions with their prophesies, and in the ?air-drawn? dagger that guides Macbeth towards his victim. Of the supernatural phenomenon evident in Macbeth the witches are perhaps the most important. The witches represent Macbeth?s evil ambitions. They are the catalyst which unleash Macbeth?s evil aspirations. Macbeth believes the witches and wishes to know more about the future so after the banquet he seeks them out at their cave. He wants to know the answers to his questions regardless of whether the consequence be violent and destructive to nature. The witches promise to answer and at Macbeth?s choice they add further unnatural ingredients to the cauldron and call up their masters. This is where the prophetic apparitions appear. The first apparition is Macbeth?s own head (later to be cut off by Macduff) confirming his fears of Macduff. The second apparition tells Macbeth that he can not be harmed by no one born of woman. This knowledge gives Macbeth a false sense of security because he believes that he cannot be harmed, yet Macduff was not of woman born, his mother was dead and a corpse when Macduff was born. This leads to Macbeth?s downfall. A child with a crown on his head, the third apparition, represents Malcolm, Duncan?s son. This apparition also gives Macbeth a false sense of security because of the Birnam Wood prophesy. The appearance of Banquo?s ghost provides insight into Macbeth?s character. It shows the level that Macbeth?s mind has recessed to. When he sees the ghost he reacts with horror and upsets the guests. Macbeth wonders why murder had taken place many times in the past before it was prevented by law -?statute
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Anaylsis between Thoreau's Civil Disobedience & Kings Letter essays In Civil Disobedience and Letter from Birmingham Jail, Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King use different techniques to fully convey their own opinions on injustice in the government; Thoreau uses a metaphor while King uses an illustration in order to establish emotional appeals. Even though Civil Disobedience, by Henry David Thoreau, was written in 1849, and King was imprisoned in 1963, each recognize that injustice occurs in our government. Each authors techniques are effective in proving that injustice should be demolished. Henry David Thoreau compares the United States government to a political machine. This machine has friction, which is Thoreau explains is injustice. He states that If the injustice is part of the necessary friction of the machine of the government, let it go, let it go...certainly the machine will wear out (Thoreau 8). Thoreau is stating that this machine will eventually cease to run if the friction continues to occur. By having injustice in the government, corruption is ultimately the result, and the corrupt government will eventually crumble. Thoreau also explains that the people who are affected by the injustice should stop it, or at least make an effort to stop it. Let your life be a counter friction to stop the machine (Thoreau 8). Sitting back and letting others fix the problem will accomplish nothing, but making any effort towards correcting the injustice is an accomplishment in itself. Although Thoreaus metaphor established an emotional appeal effectively, Kings illustrations elucidate the issue of injustice equally as effectively. King makes mention of the Christians that existed during times of great persecution, and he admires the way that they stood up for what they believed in. King explains that Whenever the early Christians entered a town, the people in power b ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Expectancy theory of motivation - Essay Example According to Williams (2010) valence, as a component of the expectancy theory of motivation, has another implication: the valence related to a particular task can be considered by an individual as important but for another individuals may be considered as of no particular value (Williams 2010, p.507). This means that the effectiveness of valence, as a component of the expectancy theory of motivation is not standardized. Montana & Charnov (2008) note that in the first phase of expectancy theory of motivation an individual need to be pursued that he will be able to perform a particular task (p.248); b) expectancy reflects the relationship between performance and expected outcomes; this means that if the rewards related to a particular task are important then it is quite possible for an individual to be motivated in order to perform the above task (Williams 2010, p.507). Griffin & Moorhead (2011) describe this component of the expectancy theory of motivation as the Ã¢â¬Ëperformance -t o - outcome expectancyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Griffin & Moorhead 2011, p.104); c) the last component of the expectancy theory of motivation is instrumentality which shows Ã¢â¬Ëthe preference of an individual for the rewards related to a particular taskÃ¢â¬â¢ (Montana & Charnov 2008, p.248). In the context of the expectancy theory of motivation, instrumentality reveals the willingness of an individual to perform higher in order to get more rewards (Williams 2010, p.507). In any case, the expectancy theory promotes the idea that motivation can be high only if Ã¢â¬Ëall three components are highÃ¢â¬â¢ (William 2010, p.507). This means that if one of the components is low, then motivation cannot be high even if the other two components are high. The company in the given scenario could use the expectancy theory of motivation in order to enhance its employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation. According to the scenario, the employees of supervisor A are
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Capstone project - Research Proposal Example It is the mandate of all nurses who deals with such patients to ensure that their safety if prioritized. This proposal seeks to address this issue by making sure that it is mandatory for all practicing nurses who deal with such patients of stroke, to administer dysphagia tests immediately a patient is admitted in the hospital before giving them any food substances. For this project, I will use an evidence based model. For effective results, in this research, I have used the conduct and utilization of research in nursing model (CURN) since the model seeks to carry out a research which gives findings to s particular behavior which improves the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ health outcome. (Scmidt, 2014)Similarly, conducted over a period of two weeks, this research seeks to prove that Dysphagia screening saves lives of persons who suffer from stroke on admission to hospitals. Many stroke patients need critical attention. Ensuring their safety while they have been admitted is one of the nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ most important things. The manner in which stroke patients are handled on arriving at the hospitals needs to be addressed. Most of the nurses do not carry out dysphagia screening as recommended for all stroke patients in the AHA/ASA guidelines (Stephenie, 2013). Some nurses go to the point of giving these patient foods without having the swallowing tests done on them prior to this. According to the data collected from my experience, only 3 out of 4 patients go through the swallowing tests. This means that the safety of the remaining patients is not prioritized. For the reason that nurses fail to carry out this necessary test, an estimated 50,000 die every year due to aspiration pneumonia after stroke. Evidently, most of these deaths can therefore be avoided by carrying out this test. The problems with swallowing in these patients are associated with a higher mortality rate (Jeff, 2013). Moreover, technologies have evolved which enable the patients to be screened for dysphagia
Monday, November 18, 2019
You Need to Be Born an Entrepreneur - Article Example It has always kept the mankind thinking, Ã¢â¬Ëwhat is the key to success?Ã¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëis there a devised formula for it or you should have in your gene to excelÃ¢â¬â¢. Success is the most tempting and sought after the object of all time, it has been an obsession for every human being and our driving force. This makes it a valid and crucial subject to analyze. In some circles, it is strongly believed that you have to be born an entrepreneur to become an entrepreneur. They have a very strong theory and of course some decent examples to follow their belief. It is thought that you have to have it in your gene to be successful. A good example of that is Luke Johnson, who is the proud owner of not one but three enterprises; Pizza Express, Strada and Patisserie Valerie. He confesses that his entrepreneurial skills are a gift from his parents, mainly father since he has always been self-employed and a great source of inspiration (Treanor, 2013). It is learned through studies that it is very likely for a person to become an entrepreneur if he has a close affiliation with a person who is self-employed, most commonly a family member or a friend. Economics Professors, David Blanchflower, of Dartmouth College US, and Andrew Oswald, from the UK's University of Warwick, agrees to this hypothesis that if a parent is self-employed it is more likely for their children to become self-employed, i.e. entrepreneurs (Treanor, 2013). It is also a common belief that if you acquire certain characteristics, then you are more likely to end up as an entrepreneur. It is stated by some members of the Young Entrepreneur Council (YEC) that you need to pose some qualities by default (or birth).Ã
Friday, November 15, 2019
Impact of IT on Interpersonal Communication Advances in technology have changed the nature of interpersonal communication. Communication is an important aspect of our everyday lives, it is constantly occurring weather its verbal or nonverbal communication. Communication is a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired and transformed (James Carey 1989). Technology has had a huge effect on the world and Interpersonal communication, especially since new advances in technology have been established. It has contributed in shaping the way that people communicate with each other. It is a debatable topic on whether the advances in technology has changed interpersonal communication for the better or for the worse. It has made changes to the world which enables us to do things time efficiently and effectively. The more advanced technology has become it has allowed information to travel faster, this has a huge effect on todays generation, especially with the recent obsession that people have with social media. Social media allows people to connect with people they know, people they dont know and even others that they wont expect to interact with again. Before advances in technology were discovered, people were limited to interacting face to face because there was no other way to whereas now with the progression and the development of technology, it allows people to interact with people all over the world to a much larger audience. Social media has most affected the nature of interpersonal communication, this is due to the way it has changed the way that people interact, and has caused a loss for social skills. There are incapable of interacting face to face due to how dependent they are of social media. Social media has created a sense of social relief for people who are socially awkward, this is because its easier way for them to communicate with people via social media platforms behind an electronic device. Social media creates a fake world where you can perceive yourself to the world however you like while hiding behind a screen. This isnt always a good thing, with social media you to put out an image of yourself that isnt real, its fake. Before the advances in technology, people had to learn to accept you for the way you are, you had no choice in deciding how to perceive yourself to the world other than to be yourself. Nowadays this generation are obsessed with their phones, people are on it so much that it makes them completely unaware of their surroundings. Conversation has become forced, where as before, people would naturally convers and the conversation would flow. A lot of the time people think of what to say because they have become so used to interacting using the same basic questions on social media such as how are you?, how was your day, that when it comes to interacting with people face to face, they have to think about what to ask. These questions have been asked so much that its become a norm for people to ask how you are at the beginning of a conversation especially on social media. The question how are you has become more of a conversation starter rather than a genuine question. This is a problem because it has made the generation of today lazy. There are people who use communication technology to talk to someone in the same room as them which displays lazy behaviour and is a prime e xample of how this generation have lost social skills. Before advances in technology, people genuinely cared about the questions that they asked because this was valued conversation and they were limited to what they could talk about. This generation, there is the internet, television, radio, game consoles, mobile phones and more that allows us to have access to different worlds andÃâÃ interacting with people that we dont know from all over the place. Social media and technology allows people to interact and find people who have similar interests, for example people who have Twitter created a trending aspect that allows you to find people who have similar interests and it is called Hashtag. Hashtagging has a huge effect on communication on social media nower days. The hashtags have gone from a random symbol to being a global symbol that can bring communities and people together from all over the world with the use of a relevant word, that people use to make trends or discussions known to the world. Hashtags can also be a form of on line marketing which can be used by business to advertise their company as it is an effective way of getting a message or idea or information across to the world. This is called mass communication. Advances in communication technology such as Email, Texting, Chat rooms, Social media sites, allows you to interact with people from all over the world on one platform, before technology a small bit of information would take a long time to reach the place it needed to go by writing letters and through word of mouth, meanwhile a small bit of information could be delivered within a matter of minutes from one end of the world to the next via the internet. This can be beneficial in ways for example, companies that employ people from far sway destinations can communicate and do interviews over skype rather than have them travel a long way for an hour interview if that. This then leads to the next point, people who live abroad or far from their family depend on technology and social media to communicate with them. Skype and facetime and other apps like this enable people who live far from their families and close ones to see them via live video call, even the telephone allows us to hear their voice. Before technology people were limited to letters that would take ages to be delivered, and isnt the same because theres only so much you can express through written context. Texting isnt as efficient and effective as face to face communication because technology communication is a lot different because you can only see words, and it is difficult to establish the semiotics of the conversation for example, when you are talking via text, its hard to see what the social codes are of the other person, how do they react and behave in different situations? If you were to say something over text, you are unable to see their reaction to what you said unlike in face to face. So, with communicating via text, the person could lie about their reaction which loses the value of its conversation because then it becomes fake. Not only this but we would not be able to see bodily codes such as, head nods, facial; expressions, gestures, postures etc. This is all part of ritualised discourse. This is where the emojis are evolved. Emojis are used to represent reaction, mood or facial expression in text. The evolution of emojis has extended so much that you have an emoji for almost every emotion in order for it to become easier and more fun to communicate, although even with this invention, technology communication will never beat face to face communication. Tidwell and Walther documented computer mediated conversation and face to face communication couples engaging in their first meetings and they had discovered that computer mediated conversation partners displayed more self -disclosures and greater intensity leading to quicker relational development. (Tidwell and Walther, 2002, pg147-148) Technology communication doesnt allow you to see the nonverbal communication aspect of interaction, which is considered an important if not of the most important parts of communication. Nonverbal communication in face to face communication allows us to focus on the body language and the facial expressions which reinforces the message whereas communication technology doesnt. Przybylski and Weinstein (2012) carried out and study and showed results that mobile phone communication in public interferes with human relationships. Two experiments were carried out which showed that they have an effect on, closeness, connection and conversation quality especially when conversing about personal meaningful topics. A beneficial aspect of advances in communication is the accessibility. It has created different online communication tools which have helped the world become a more connected place. Although for the older generation who didnt grow up with this type of technology,ÃâÃ they dont find it as easy as others who were brought up around it , to understand the whole online and technology process which creates a digital divide because they dont have the same level as expertise with this type of technology as the others do. Advances in technology have had a huge effect in the style of conversation that is used today in comparison to the style of communication that was used before this technology had been established. When using mobile phone device to communicate it has caused people to use shorter words as the need for longer words isnt needed when you have symbols and emojis to express what you are trying to say, however this creates shortcuts and has caused an ignorance to traditional grammatical rules which one would have said before. This has made conversation become very short and brief and contributes to the loss of conversation value. This has changed the whole nature of communication, this is due to the advances in communication. One click can online just find huge amounts of information, whereas before if you wanted to find out information, people would have to research by asking different people, reading books, searching through pages and pages which in the meantime would increase their knowledge whilst they are trying to find out one bit of information they are finding more stuff out on the way. Whereas now, anything we type into a search bar its there at an instant which has created the laziness. Campbell and Kwak (2011) carried out a study and had examined weather mobile phone communication influences to an extent than when someone engages in face to face communication with new people in a public setting. The study found some evidence that mobile phone use in public facilitated talking with strangers, for those who rely a lot on mobile phones to exchange information about news. Social media isnt the only thing that has affected the nature of interpersonal communication, television has a huge impact as well. How many people in this generation would sit with their family in silence for hours with the TV on. The television is another major aspect that has caused laziness. Many people nower days would consider sitting all together silently spending time together. In the days before advances in technology people would sit in a room and converse with their family, and this was how their family nights would be spent. Overall I think that Advances in communication has had a huge impact on interpersonal communication today and has changed the nature of it, it has also proved that through the power of the evolution and expansion of new technology being discovered it will continue to affect the nature of interpersonal communication as we know it. Although it has had a huge effect it has also created a lot more means and topics of conversation with more things being discovered online and being able to converse and interact with people around the world, it has mad people because lazy in face to face but it has allowed people to meet people from over the world and discover new things that they couldnt have without advances in technology. Bibliography Communication is a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired and transformed Carey, J (1989). A Cultural Approach To Communication. Routledge, York, N.Y. Inc, B.H. (2010) How has technology changed communication? Available at: http://www.brighthubpm.com/methods-strategies/79052-exploring-how-technology-has-changed-communication/ (Accessed: 6 January 2017).In-line Citation:(Inc, 2010) Fenell, Z. (2016) Communication technology pros and cons. Available at: https://www.techwalla.com/articles/communication-technology-pros-cons (Accessed: 6 January 2017).In-line Citation:(Fenell, 2016) Drago, E. (2015) The effect of technology on face-to-face communication, Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 6(1).In-line Citation:(Drago, 2015) Nield, D. (2012) How technology has affected communication. Available at: http://techin.oureverydaylife.com/technology-affected-communication-1432.html (Accessed: 6 January 2017).In-line Citation:(Nield, 2012) Inc, B.H. (2010) How has technology changed communication? Available at: http://www.brighthubpm.com/methods-strategies/79052-exploring-how-technology-has-changed-communication/ (Accessed: 6 January 2017).In-line Citation:(Inc, 2010)
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Stress is a common emotion or state that is experienced at difficult or threatening times. This is often not attributed to children, however, and can be even more detrimental to their mental and emotional state. High stress in children is both physically and psychologically harmful, which can affect behaviors and attitudes in the future.Ã High stress can cause children to lag in academic settings and turn to detrimental social behaviors. This can even lead to heart disease, depression, and other serious complications later in life (Segal and Smith, 2014). Taking preventive measures or intervening early in childhood can greatly decrease these risk factors and consequences. High stress in children interacts with a variety of factors, including attachment style and biology of the developing brain. Based on the social learning theory, caregiverÃ¢â¬â¢s active role and community care programs are essential in the intervention and prevention of high stress in children. Prevention and intervention of high stress in children is possible and necessary.There are many suggestions for parents on how to manage this. As mentioned above, the attachment style between the parent and child is crucial in how the child thinks and behaves. According toÃ Dozier and Cicchetti, interventions should concentrate on attachment styles in order Ã¢â¬Å"to increase parental sensitivity, and responsiveness to foster more secure parent-child relationships and alter the childÃ¢â¬â¢s inner working modelsÃ¢â¬ (2003, 2005). This emphasizes the importance of a Ã¢â¬Å"secure baseÃ¢â¬ for the child in order to be active in their environment but also feel comfortable and safe that they have someone to fall back on in times of stress or trauma (Book). It is also important to note that the caregiver is more likely to affect the attachment relationship than the child (Goodman, 2007). Parenting style also affects the environment of the child, particularly on an emotional level. According to BaumrindÃ¢â¬â¢s theory on parenting styles, parents should be high in responsiveness and demandingness (1973). The social learning theory supports this and parents should be aware that they should Ã¢â¬Å"use clear, consistent, non-hostile guidance and discipline techniqueÃ¢â¬ (Fisher, Burraston, & Pears, 2005).Ã A clear relationship has been seen with the responsiveness and attentiveness of a parent and the stress levels of a child. In a study done by Gunnar and Fisher, parents were tested for responsiveness and sensitivity to the child several times as the child aged. The children were later tested and found to have greater levels of cortisol, which is a hormone released in response to stress (2006).
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Ellen DeGeneres never thought that announcing she was a lesbian would have been a big deal. She knew then that what she was doing would caused questions and controversy but not in a way where she would be considered the poster child for the Gay Community. The way Ellen came out to the world was a bigger shock to her than it was to her audience. This is when Ellen realized that she changed more than her own life coming out. Her fan base got bigger and her life opened up for the greater good. She felt like coming out should not change what she would be doing for humanity. On EllenÃ¢â¬â¢s 50th birthday, she decided to raise money and get notice to her hometown, New Orleans, Louisiana, some help for the August 2005 Hurricane Katrina. This storm was one of the most deadly storms in United States history. During the storm the federal flood protection system failed and the levee broke, flooding 80% of the city and surrounding cities for weeks. Since Ellen had connections with many other celebrities, she used those connections to get help for her city. Brad Pitt was one of the celebrities that had a foundation going for rebuilding homes in New Orleans. With the help of Ellen putting out the foundation through her television show, Brad was able to get 150 homes built. She showed her passion for helping out when she told the world why this fundraiser was important to her. She shows that the place she looked at as home and helped made her who she was Ellen DeGeneres has been an inspiration to people for the past twelve years. EllenÃ¢â¬â¢s life had just begun. Ellen DeGeneres came into the world January 26, 1956 in Jefferson, Louisiana at the Oschner Foundation Hospital. In the book, Love, Ellen: A Mother/Daughters Journey (1999), Betty Degeneres, EllenÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, said that she was a miracle. EllenÃ¢â¬â¢s father didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want anymore chidren after her brother was born, four years earlier. He thought that one child was sufficient enough. But Betty was determined to convince him that they should try again for another child. According to Lisa Iannucci (2009) Ellen was just a normal child, she played with her sibling and played outside like any other child would do at that age. She was a tomboy that wore fancy dresses and played with Barbie dolls. She once had dreams of becoming a naturalist or zoologist. She had a love and passion for animals and wanted to later join the Peace Corps to study the apes in Africa. Growing up Ellen had a fascination for great comedians such as Jack Benny, George Gorbel, and the comedy team Bob and Ray. Watching these comics entertain crowds was a little informal training of EllenÃ¢â¬â¢s career in the later years. Ellen discovered the benefits of comedy when her mother divorced her dad. Her mother had been so down and depressed that Ellen knew she could cheer her up with a laugh. Ellen used this same comedic value to get through the very tough times in her life. When Ellen was sixteen she started partying, becoming rebellious, and hanging out with the wrong crowds. In her small town of Metairie, she would drink beer with her friends and stay out all night. This was her reaction to her mother getting remarried in 1974 to a salesman. Her mother wanted to remove her from the city, so the salesman got a new job in Atlanta, Texas. The DeGeneres family packed up and moved to Atlanta. While in Texas, Ellen started to fit into her new life there. Ellen started dating her first boyfriend, Ben Heath. Her brother Vance was in a band in high school and was receiving a lot of attention. Ellen wanted some of this attention that her brother was getting and was starting to have dreams of becoming famous. Ellen craved for people to like her, she wanted to try to find a way to become famous so people would like her and want to be her friend. EllenÃ¢â¬â¢s family looked like the perfect family from the outside, but something dark and eerie was going on inside. Behind close doors the salesman was crude and bossy and Ellen did not like who he was. During this time EllenÃ¢â¬â¢s mother found out that she had breast cancer. She ended up having a mastectomy and had to do physical therapy and rehabilitation. Betty tried to hide her cancer from Ellen but she needed EllenÃ¢â¬â¢s help to recover. This is when Ellen and her mother became close. During this time of recovery, the salesman molested Ellen. She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to get her mother upset so she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t mention it to her, while she was recovering. When her stepfather tried to molester again, she ran away to a friendÃ¢â¬â¢s house. Ellen left Atlanta, Texas and move back to Louisiana with her father after she graduated high school. Once Ellen moved to Louisiana, she enrolled into the University of New Orleans, to major in Communications. Ellen soon found out that college wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t for her and dropped out after one semester. Ellen started to search for a career since college didnÃ¢â¬â¢t go as planned. During this time of finding a career, Ellen was also finding herself. She was holding another secret about her sexuality from family and friends. She was starting to feel confused about her sexuality. This could have been a result of the nuture factor. Her homosexuality could have been triggered from her stepfather molesting her. Nurture refers to the childhood and how an individual grew up (MacKinnon, 1962). She liked boys in the beginning; she had some boyfriends in the past, but she was never really attracted to men. Once Ellen figured out what sexual orientation that she was, she started dating women but still havenÃ¢â¬â¢t broke the news to her family. She decided to tell her mom one day while they were walking along the beach. She started to cry, not because she was afraid, but because she was now free of this secret that she was holding. Her mom embraced her and accepted EllenÃ¢â¬â¢s fate. During this time that Ellen came out about her sexuality, it was forbidden doing those times. In the 1950s consensual gay sex was a felony. The gay communities were trying to fight for rights in the 1960s but were still getting tortured and shunned. Betty started to be afraid for Ellen. Being homosexual was considered to be a mental health disorder by the psychiatric community. The National Gay Task Force Foundation was founded in 1973, in New York, and worked to change the American Psychiatric AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢s grouping of homosexuality as a mental heath problem. EllenÃ¢â¬â¢s brother accepted the news well, but EllenÃ¢â¬â¢s father did take it very well. He later kicked Ellen out of the house, thinking that she would influence her stepsiblings. He later helped her get an apartment and admitted that he regretted what he did to her. Ellen acquired many jobs; she sold clothes, was a bartender, washed cars, shucked oysters, and wrapped gifts. Just like she knew that college wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t for her, these jobs werenÃ¢â¬â¢t satisfying her neither, she was hungry to do something more. She now knew that she wanted to make people laugh for the rest of her life. She began performing at a few small venues in New Orleans. Her routines were different than other comedians of her time such as, Eddie Murphy, Chris Rock, and Richard Pryor. The difference between them and her was he bits didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have vulgarity and sexual references. Ellen joked about her everyday life and experiences. She did this to relate to her audiences. Ellen started to take off in her career. She started competing in comedy competition where she placed first in the Ã¢â¬Å"Funniest Person in AmericaÃ¢â¬ competition. She later went to open for a few acts in Las Vegas where the producer from Ã¢â¬Å"The Tonight Show with Johnny CarsonÃ¢â¬ was there and asked her to come on the show. Once she performed on the Tonight Show, this put her career in overdrive and she became a superstar. She became the first female comedic to seat on the big couch on the Tonight Show. She ended up coming back on six more times in two years. She later got a minor role on Open House in 1989. It was a spin-off of the fox show Duet. She then went and filmed her first HBO special Young Comedian Reunion, in 1986. Two years later she appeared in HBOÃ¢â¬â¢s Women of the Night. She got a small role in the movie The Coneheads, and got her own sitcom on ABC called These Friends of Mine. Ellen revealed her true sexual preference in Time magazine April 1997 issue. In this issue she talked about her life as a gay woman and hiding who she was in the comedian community. She made her character on her television show Ellen also comes out of the closet. This caused some controversy for the Christian religion organizations. She made her first appearance publicly with her sexuality at the White House Correspondents Dinner with actress Anne Heche on her arm. In 1998 Ellen honored at the 9th Annual GLAAD Media Awards with the Stephen F. Kolzak Award. Ellen now was fighting for her lesbian life on and off the television. Her mother started to become an advocate to her daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle. Betty started volunteering at the Human Rights Campaign. Her mother became the first nongay national spokesperson for the Human Rights Campaign. She was helping to encourage and assist gay people in coming out and living honestly. Her mother also became an active member of Parents, Family, and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG). In 2003 Ellen started her own daytime television talk show called The Ellen Degeneres Show. People were afraid that Ellen would just bring up gay themes through out the show and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want it to go on air. Once people got over the fact that Ellen was gay, her show started to skyrocket on television ratings. It was the television show that Ellen had always wanted. She could make people laugh and every loved her. In season two the show won five daytime Emmys. In 2005 Ellen won a Grammy for having the best comedy album for the audio portion of her book. She also won some awards at the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Choice Awards. While her show was getting good ratings, she met her current wife, Portia de Rossi. She met Portia at a photo shoot in 2004. Ellen and Portia quickly fell in love. They both ended their current relationships and started dating in 2005. They went on to get married in 2008 after California passed the Same-Sex Marriage Act. With all of EllenÃ¢â¬â¢s life decisions, it had to do with her social and emotional development. She was always able to make transitions from one activity to another. Her ability to start a new when it came to her many careers before she found the right one was an example of her social/emotional development (Roeser, Eccles, & Sameroff, 2000). She showed cooperation with others when she was getting ridiculed for her coming out, but she stayed humbled and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t let it get to her (Webb, 1994).
Friday, November 8, 2019
Radium Facts and Chemical and Physical Properties Atomic Number: 88 Symbol: Ra Atomic Weight: 226.0254 Electron Configuration: [Rn] 7s2 Word Origin: Latin radius: ray Element Classification: alkaline earth metal Discovery It was discovered by Pierre and Marie Curie in 1898 (France/Poland). It was isolated in 1911 by Mme. Curie and Debierne. Isotopes Sixteen isotopes of radium are known. The most common isotope is Ra-226, which has a half-life of 1620 years. Properties Radium is an alkaline earth metal. Radium has a melting point of 700Ã °C, boiling point of 1140Ã °C, specific gravity estimated to be 5, and valence of 2. Pure radium metal is bright white when freshly prepared, although it blackens upon exposure to air. The element decomposes in water. It is somewhat more volatile than the element barium. Radium and its salts exhibit luminescence and impart a carmine color to flame. Radium emits alpha, beta, and gamma rays. It produces neutrons when mixed with beryllium. A single gram of Ra-226 decays at the rate of 3.7x1010 disintegrations per second. [The curie (Ci) is defined to be the quantity of radioactivity which has the same rate of disintegration as 1 gram of Ra-226.] A gram of radium produces around 0.0001 ml (STP) of radon gas (emanation) per day and about 1000 calories per year. Radium loses about 1% of its activity over 25 years, with lead as its final disintegration product. Radium is a radiological hazard. Stored radium requires ven tilation to prevent the build-up of radon gas. Uses Radium has been used to produce neutron sources, luminous paints, and medical radioisotopes. Sources Radium was discovered in pitchblende or uraninite. Radium is found in all uranium minerals. There is approximately 1 gram of radium for each 7 tons of pitchblende. Radium was first isolated by electrolysis of a radium chloride solution, using a mercury cathode. The resulting amalgam yielded pure radium metal upon distillation in hydrogen. Radium is commercially obtained as its chloride or bromide and tends not to be purified as an element. Physical Data Density (g/cc): (5.5) Melting Point (K): 973 Boiling Point (K): 1413 Appearance: silvery white, radioactive element Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 45.0 Ionic Radius: 143 (2e) Specific Heat (20Ã °C J/g mol): 0.120 Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): (9.6) Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): (113) Pauling Negativity Number: 0.9 First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 509.0 Oxidation States: 2 Sources CRC Handbook of Chemistry Physics, 18th Ed.Crescent Chemical Company, 2001.Langes Handbook of Chemistry, 1952.Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2001.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Strained Relations essays With over 60,000 Canadians who died fighting in the war, the price of the war was devastating to our country. What started in a war resulted in us getting independence and sovereignty in Canada. With many strained relations during the war, was the outcome worth it? Things such as racism and discrimination were big problems during the war. With so many different cultures and religious people in Canada, there were problems and drastic actions during the war. Even though a different colour or race, people still wanted to help Canada in the war, but we didnt allow that. Many thousands were turned down when they signed up to go to war, and even donations werent accepted from people of different race. People who were of a race of Germanys alliance were treated horribly by many people and were then sent to camps. These people lost their homes, and sometimes family just because there from that region and thought to be spies. With all the racism people still tried to help by giving money, participating in government bonds and stamps, and helping do the jobs the men once did. In the end, other races got respect because they never gave up in helping in the war. Also, there was much less discrimination against people for how they look or speak. Many people werent allowed to vote just because they spoke a different language, werent of a British background, or just because they didnt have any relatives fighting in the war. With these laws, not everyone got their word and opinion in what should happen with Canada in the future. Even women werent allowed to vote. Almost everyone tried to help in the war by taking on jobs they dont normally do and helping the army by making things they need. Even in doing these things, they werent given the right to vote until the near end. Due to the participation of everyone many people had the right to vote by the end of the war including women. ...
Monday, November 4, 2019
Nursing Theory - Essay Example As the report declares the Roy Adaptation Model has both scientific and philosophical aspects. The scientific aspect of the model Is systems of matter and energy progress to higher levels of complex self-organization. This discussion stresses that John B. Watson was a behaviorist and therefore he emphasized the study of observable behavior. His nursing model, rejected introspection &theories of the unconscious mind. The scientific and philosophical aspects of his nursing model were similar because of this. He described behavior in terms of terms of physiological responses to stimuli. Barone et al 1996. His theory and nursing model was primarily concerned with the increasing or decreasing of the likelihood of given response by manipulating the consequences of the response. Although WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s model is not very large on the philosophical tenets he did have a legitimate nursing model that is still implemented and taught in many schools of nursing to this day. Although both RoyÃ¢â¬â¢s and WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s models are widely accepted and taught there are some who argue that these models are not feasible. In regard to RoyÃ¢â¬â¢s model there are arguments that contend this model is in a sense to l iberal to work. By that it is meant that the model is too personalized and requires a one on one implementation of the model for it to work. Those who reject this model feel that it is not feasible for a nurse with other duties and obligations to have the time to render this type of aide to patients.
Friday, November 1, 2019
The Little Red Roaster - Case Study Example Center of discussion in this paper is the Little Red Roaster that had been in business since 1994. Owned by Kendra Gordon Green, the company offered a menu of coffees, teas, gourmet beverages, breakfasts, light lunches and snacks. The company had been approached by other companies to diversify its operations into wholesaling and catering. There was also the option of selling the company. The LRR operated in a highly competitive market. Therefore the company could not afford to sit still. The company could expand into wholesaling or catering. The management could also sell the company. Given the fierce competition for market share in retail, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s core business, the future strategic direction would involve implementing one of these options. Gordon-Green had to make a decision fast about which option to pursue. The communication theory is relevant in this business situation because of the distribution and logistics issues to be considered. The company would require a wel l-designed communication system in either wholesale or catering. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to maintain net profit at 4.56% of sales. In reaching this goal, the company had three action alternatives. Gordon-Green could sell the company. The LRR could diversify into wholesale. The company could expand the catering capacity. In implementing either option of wholesaling or catering, the company would incur additional costs. In implementing the wholesaling strategy, the LRR should outsource distribution and logistics to D&C. ... So Gordon-Green had to make a decision about which of these future options to pursue. Problems The LRR operated in a highly competitive market. Therefore Gordon-Green had to make a decision fast about the strategic direction of the company. The LRR had been approached by wholesale and catering customers to expand in both industries. However, given the wide spectrum of competitors in the industry, they would not wait long. The LRR had developed strong brand awareness in the retail market. However the company could not afford to sit still given the wide spectrum of competitors, as stated in the case, ranging from multinational corporations to family-run businesses. Given the fierce competition for market share, the LRR had to diversify into other markets. Therefore Gordon-Green had to consider the proposals made by both the student consultant team and the wholesale and catering customers. Given the high level of competitive rivalry in the market, the strategic direction of the company was at stake. However Gordon-Green had three options to consider. She could sell the company or expand in the wholesale business or expand in the catering business. These are the three future options one of which should be selected. Given the fast pace of change in the external environment, the wholesale and catering customers would not wait long before they approached other retail companies. Therefore Gordon-Green was anxious to make a fast decision. If Gordon-Green sold the company, then she would no longer be able to capitalize upon the strong brand awareness that the company had achieved so far. Gordon-Green enjoyed being an entrepreneur and wanted to be in business for herself. However she was also